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Cannabis, also known colloquially as marijuana, has a complex history and an even more intricate landscape when it comes to its uses, effects, and regulation. The plant, native to Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, is one of the oldest psychoactive substances utilised by humans. The two main species often cited are Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica, each with distinct chemical properties and physiological effects.


Explore cannabis’s history, uses, and legal standing, particularly in the UK. Delve into its medical applications, societal views, and consumption methods. Understand the physical and psychological effects, alongside abuse risks. Learn about the UK’s legal framework for cannabis drugs, the growing medical market, and get guidelines for safe, responsible use for both therapeutic and recreational purposes.

Common risks

The risks of cannabis use highlighted include potential dependency, respiratory issues from smoking, exacerbated mental health conditions, cognitive impairments, and social consequences like isolation and financial strain. Chronic use may impact educational and job performance, strain relationships, and lead to legal troubles. Overdose, while rare, can cause severe disorientation and anxiety attacks. The guide underscores the importance of recognizing abuse signs for timely intervention and responsible consumption.

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Cannabis Explained

Cannabis, also known colloquially as marijuana, has a complex history and an even more intricate landscape when it comes to its uses, effects, and regulation. The plant, native to Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, is one of the oldest psychoactive substances utilised by humans. The two main species often cited are Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica, each with distinct chemical properties and physiological effects.

Medical Uses

Medicinally, cannabis is often hailed for its therapeutic properties. Various compounds in cannabis, particularly delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have been found to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and even mitigate symptoms of anxiety and depression. Medical institutions such as the NHS in the United Kingdom have introduced guidelines on cannabis-based products for medicinal use, signifying a growing acceptance of its clinical applications.

Societal Perspectives

Conversely, the plant has also been a subject of controversy and stigma, particularly due to its psychoactive properties. Studies, including those seeking to understand its effects on specific demographic groups, have often met with challenges, as seen in research initiatives like the one reported by The Guardian in September 2023.

Potential Risks

While cannabis has proven therapeutic benefits, it is also associated with risks, such as mental health issues. Organisations like the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Canada offer resources that shed light on the potential negative impact of cannabis use, such as increased risk of anxiety and addiction.

Future Directions

The future of cannabis seems poised at the intersection of medicine, law, and society. Ongoing research and regulatory shifts, such as those observed in Science Direct articles and historical reviews by the Sydney University Lambert Initiative, indicate that our understanding of cannabis continuously evolves.

In this multifaceted context, cannabis is not just a plant, a medicine, or a legal difficulty—it is a subject that encapsulates a myriad of social, medical, and ethical considerations, requiring a nuanced approach for its comprehension and utilisation.

Definition and Classification

Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants that belongs to the family Cannabaceae. It is primarily classified into three main species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis, although the distinctions are subject to ongoing debate among botanists and pharmacologists. These plants are known for their psychoactive and medicinal properties, largely attributed to compounds known as cannabinoids.


The most well-known cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is primarily responsible for the plant’s psychoactive effects, while CBD is non-psychoactive and has been linked to various therapeutic applications.

Common Examples

Medical Cannabis Products

  • CBD Oil: Extracted from the hemp plant, a variety of Cannabis sativa with low THC content. It is often used to relieve anxiety and manage pain.
  • THC Capsules: These are prescribed for conditions like chronic pain and are controlled in terms of their THC concentration.
  • Topicals: Creams and balms infused with CBD or THC can be applied directly to the skin for localised relief from conditions like arthritis or eczema.
  • Cannabis Edibles: Food products like brownies or gummies that are infused with cannabis. These are usually used for their long-lasting effects.

Recreational Forms

  • Smoking/Vaping: Dried cannabis flowers are commonly smoked or vapourised for recreational use, delivering immediate psychoactive effects.
  • Hashish: A concentrated form of cannabis that contains higher levels of THC.
  • Tinctures: Liquid cannabis extracts that can be taken sublingually or added to food and drinks.
  • Hemp Seeds: Rich in protein and fatty acids, they are often added to foods like smoothies or salads.
  • Hemp Fibre: Used to produce textiles, ropes, and building materials.

Types of Cannabis Drugs

The types of cannabis drugs can be categorised based on their form, intended use, and the predominant cannabinoids they contain. Understanding these categories is critical for both medical and recreational users, as well as policymakers.

Based on Form:

  • Flower: The bud of the cannabis plant that is usually smoked or vaporised.
  • Concentrates: Substances like hashish, shatter, and wax that have a high concentration of cannabinoids.
  • Edibles: Food items infused with cannabis, such as brownies or gummies.
  • Tinctures: Alcohol-based cannabis extracts, typically administered sublingually.
  • Topicals: Ointments, balms, and lotions infused with cannabis for external application.

Based on Intended Use:

  • Medical Cannabis: Specifically cultivated and processed for medical treatments, often requiring a prescription. It is generally high in CBD and low in THC.
  • Recreational Cannabis: Grown for personal use and enjoyment, often containing higher levels of THC to induce psychoactive effects.
  • Industrial Hemp: Primarily grown for its fibre and seeds, it contains negligible amounts of THC.

Based on Predominant Cannabinoids:

  • THC-Dominant: Products that are high in THC and low in CBD, offering more potent psychoactive effects.
  • CBD-Dominant: High in CBD and low in THC, these products are often used for their potential therapeutic benefits without causing a “high.”
  • Balanced: These products contain roughly equal amounts of THC and CBD, offering a middle ground between psychoactive and therapeutic relief.

Specialised Types:

  • High-CBD, Low-THC Strains: Developed specifically for patients who want to avoid the psychoactive effects of THC.
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids: Laboratory-made substances that aim to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids. Examples include drugs like Spice or K2, which are legally problematic and often more dangerous.

As societal attitudes and legal frameworks around cannabis continue to evolve, it is increasingly important to understand these different types and their potential effects, both positive and negative. NHS in the UK and WHO globally provide guidelines that can be critical in shaping the production, distribution, and consumption of these diverse cannabis products.

Effects of Cannabis

Physical Effects

The physical effects of cannabis are manifold and predominantly influenced by its active compounds, particularly THC and CBD. Upon consumption, these compounds interact with the endocannabinoid system in the body, affecting various physiological functions. Common physical effects include relaxation and decreased pain sensitivity, often cited as beneficial aspects of medical use. However, cannabis use can also lead to a dry mouth, red eyes, and an increased heart rate. In some instances, especially with higher doses, users may experience dizziness and lack of coordination. The method of consumption—whether smoked, ingested, or applied topically—can also influence the intensity and duration of these effects. Importantly, cannabis has a variable effect on appetite, often inducing hunger, colloquially known as “the munchies.” Chronic use may lead to respiratory issues, especially when smoked, though the research is still inconclusive on this aspect.

Psychological Effects

The psychological effects of cannabis are equally diverse and closely tied to the type and amount of cannabinoids present in the product consumed. THC, the psychoactive component, can induce feelings of euphoria, creativity, and increased sensory perception. However, it can also lead to anxiety, paranoia, and, in extreme cases, hallucinations. CBD, on the other hand, is non-psychoactive and is often associated with reducing anxiety and improving mood. Memory and cognition may also be affected during the period of intoxication. Several studies have indicated that regular use, especially in adolescence, may lead to cognitive deficits, though the literature is inconclusive. The psychological effects can be particularly intense for individuals with pre-existing mental health conditions, necessitating caution and medical supervision.

Short-term and Long-term Effects

  • Short-term Effects: The short-term effects of cannabis are generally what most people experience immediately after consumption. These range from increased sociability and talkativeness to a relaxed state and a heightened sensory experience. Some users may also experience short-term memory loss or difficulty concentrating. Usually, these effects wear off as the drug is metabolised, typically within a few hours.
  • Long-term Effects: Chronic, long-term use of cannabis is associated with a variety of risks. Studies suggest extended use can decrease cognitive function, particularly in learning and memory. There are also concerns about the potential for addiction and dependency, especially when usage begins at a young age. Respiratory issues are also a concern for individuals who smoke cannabis regularly. Furthermore, long-term use may exacerbate symptoms of mental health conditions like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, it’s important to note that much of the research on long-term effects is still inconclusive, and more studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions.

Understanding these effects is essential for both individual users and healthcare providers to make informed decisions about cannabis use. It’s always advisable to consult with a medical professional for personalised advice, especially for long-term or medicinal use.

Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis

Cannabis has gained considerable attention for its potential therapeutic applications. Its analgesic properties make it a viable option for pain management, including chronic pain and neuropathic pain. It is also used to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Additionally, cannabis has shown promise in managing certain neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis, as well as mental health conditions like anxiety and PTSD. The anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids like CBD make them useful in treating autoimmune diseases like Crohn’s and rheumatoid arthritis. More recently, cannabis-based medicines have been considered for their potential antitumor effects, although conclusive evidence is lacking.

Common Cannabis Drugs

  • Dronabinol (Marinol): A synthetic form of THC used to treat nausea and vomiting.
  • Nabiximols (Sativex): A mouth spray containing THC and CBD for spasticity in multiple sclerosis.
  • Epidiolex: A CBD-based medication for treating rare forms of epilepsy.
  • Cesamet (Nabilone): Used to treat nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients; it mimics THC.

Types of Cannabis

Cannabis Sativa

  • Street Names: Green Goddess, Haze, Sativa Special, Laughing Grass.
  • Methods of Use: Smoked, vaped, ingested as edibles, used in tinctures.
  • Short-term Effects: Increased energy, uplifted mood, creativity, heightened sensory perception.
  • Long-term Effects: Potential for addiction, cognitive impairments, reduced motivation, minor respiratory issues if smoked.

Cannabis Indica

  • Street Names: In-da-couch, Purple, Skunk, Afghan.
  • Methods of Use: Smoked, vaped, ingested as edibles, used in oils.
  • Short-term Effects: Relaxation, pain relief, drowsiness, increased appetite.
  • Long-term Effects: Potential for addiction, cognitive impairments, and potential weight gain due to increased appetite.

Cannabis Ruderalis

  • Street Names: Diesel, Auto, Russian Grass.
  • Methods of Use: Less commonly smoked; primarily used for breeding auto-flowering strains.
  • Short-term Effects: Mild relaxation, less potent psychoactive effects.
  • Long-term Effects: Insufficient data due to less common usage.


  • Street Names: Chemdawg, OG Kush, Blue Dream, Gelato.
  • Methods of Use: Smoked, vaped, ingested as edibles, used in oils and tinctures.
  • Short-term Effects: Varies depending on the dominant strain; can include relaxation, euphoria, increased appetite, and creativity.
  • Long-term Effects: Cognitive impairment’s potential for addiction varies based on the dominant strain.

Prescription Cannabis


  • Types of Active Ingredients: Cannabidiol (CBD).
  • Brand Names:
  • Street Names: Epi, Seizure Saver.
  • Methods of Use: Administered orally in oil form.
  • Short-term Effects: Reduction in seizure frequency, temporary liver enzyme elevation.
  • Long-term Effects: Liver abnormalities, potential for reduced efficacy over time.

Nabiximols (Sativex)

  • Types of Active Ingredients: Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD).
  • Brand Names:
  • Street Names: MS Spray, Sativex Squirts.
  • Methods of Use: Administered as an oral mucosal spray.
  • Short-term Effects: Spasticity relief, reduced neuropathic pain, mild euphoria.
  • Long-term Effects: Potential for dependency, oral discomfort, and gastrointestinal issues.

Dronabinol (Marinol)

  • Types of Active Ingredients: Synthetic Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
  • Brand Names:
  • Street Names: Synthetic THC, Marinol Meds.
  • Methods of Use: Ingested orally in capsule form.
  • Short-term Effects: Nausea relief, appetite stimulation, mild euphoria.
  • Long-term Effects: Potential for dependency, gastrointestinal issues, altered mental states.

Methods of Administration

The methods through which cannabis can be administered are varied, each with its unique implications for the user.

Oral Consumption

Oral intake is a prevalent method of administration for cannabis, especially for medicinal purposes. The substance can be ingested as a pill, capsule, or edible and absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream. This method results in delayed onset but long-lasting effects, and the liver metabolises the active compounds, which can alter their impact.

Vaporisation (Vaping)

Vaporisation, commonly known as vaping, involves inhaling cannabis vapour produced by a vaporiser. This method allows for rapid onset of effects and is considered less harmful to the respiratory system compared to smoking. However, the safety of long-term vaping is still under investigation.


Smoking is another prevalent method of administering cannabis. The dried flower is commonly smoked in a pipe, joint, or bong. This method provides immediate onset of effects but poses significant risks to the respiratory system over time due to the inhalation of combustion byproducts.


Tinctures involve the use of cannabis extracts that are often alcohol-based and are administered sublingually (under the tongue) or added to food or drink. The onset is quicker than edibles but slower than smoking or vaping, offering a middle-ground option.


Topical administration involves applying cannabis-infused creams, lotions, or balms directly to the skin. This non-psychoactive method is mainly used for localised pain relief or skin conditions. It poses little to no systemic risks.

Sublingual Strips

Sublingual strips are placed under the tongue and dissolve, allowing for the rapid absorption of cannabis into the bloodstream. This method is discreet and provides a rapid onset of effects, making it suitable for acute symptom relief.

Transdermal Patches

Transdermal patches are applied to the skin and provide a slow, controlled release of cannabis into the bloodstream. These are often used for chronic conditions requiring consistent dosing and pose minimal health risks.

These methods of administration highlight the diverse ways in which cannabis can be consumed, each with distinct implications regarding the onset of effects, duration of effects, and potential health risks. Understanding these methods is crucial for both medical professionals and individuals to ensure the safe and effective use of cannabis.

The Dangers of Cannabis Abuse

The issue of cannabis abuse is a subject of increasing concern, given its potential for dependency and various health implications. A thorough understanding of the signs, symptoms, and adverse consequences of cannabis misuse can enable timely intervention and appropriate medical treatment.

Signs of Abuse

  • Initial Attraction: The initial allure of cannabis often involves feelings of relaxation and mild euphoria, drawing in first-time users.
  • Mood Alterations: Short-term psychological effects like heightened sensory perception can further contribute to its allure.
  • Psychological Symptoms: Throughout prolonged misuse, individuals may experience mood swings, increased anxiety, and even depressive states.
  • Physical Dependence: A significant indicator of abuse is the continued consumption of cannabis, even when adverse psychological or physical effects are apparent.
  • Social Isolation: Some individuals may withdraw from social or familial obligations, further indicating potential abuse.
  • Neglected Responsibilities: An inability to fulfil work or educational duties often follows.
  • Change in Friend Groups: There may be a noticeable shift in social circles towards others who are also involved in drug use.
  • Financial Strains: Cannabis abuse can also lead to financial instability due to the cost of maintaining the habit.
  • Legal Troubles: Depending on jurisdiction, possession or distribution can lead to legal consequences.
  • Lack of Interest: A general apathy or lack of interest in activities that once were sources of joy can also signify abuse.

Consequences of Chronic Use

  • Dependency: Though less addictive than other substances like opioids, cannabis can result in psychological dependency.
  • Respiratory Issues: Particularly for those who smoke cannabis, there is a heightened risk for respiratory issues such as bronchitis and lung infections.
  • Mental Health: Extended misuse has the potential to exacerbate existing mental health conditions and can also induce heightened states of anxiety or paranoia.
  • Memory Problems: Long-term abuse can result in issues with memory and cognition.
  • Educational Impact: Among younger individuals, chronic use can have a detrimental impact on educational performance.
  • Work Impact: Job performance can decline, leading to financial instability or job loss.
  • Relationship Strain: Chronic use can place significant strain on personal relationships, often leading to social isolation.
  • Physical Health: Over time, chronic use can also lead to weight gain and issues with physical fitness.
  • Financial Strain: The cost of maintaining a cannabis habit can lead to financial hardships.
  • Legal Consequences: Continued abuse can result in legal repercussions, including arrest and imprisonment.

Overdose Symptoms and Management

  • Physiological Symptoms: While cannabis overdose is extremely rare, excessive use can result in significant impairment of motor skills and severe disorientation.
  • Anxiety Attacks: Some users may experience severe anxiety or paranoia.
  • Impaired Judgement: Overuse can lead to poor decision-making and risky behaviours.
  • Tachycardia: Increased heart rate may be particularly concerning for individuals with pre-existing heart conditions.
  • Bloodshot Eyes: While not harmful, this is a common symptom.
  • Dry Mouth: Another minor but common symptom is xerostomia, or dry mouth.
  • Sensory Distortions: Overdose can lead to altered sensory perceptions, which, while not usually dangerous, can be disturbing.
  • Hallucinations: In extreme cases, auditory or visual hallucinations may occur.
  • Preventive Measures: Recognising signs of potential abuse is crucial for preventing further complications, such as accidents due to impaired motor skills.
  • Medical Attention: In severe cases, medical attention may be necessary, particularly for those with existing health conditions that may be exacerbated by cannabis use.

Legal Status of Cannabis Drugs in the UK

A series of legislative frameworks manage the legal status of cannabis drugs in the United Kingdom. These legal instruments aim to regulate the cultivation, possession, distribution, and utilisation of cannabis, particularly considering its evolving role in medicinal use and its risk of recreational abuse.

Regulation of Prescription Cannabis

  • Controlled Substances: Cannabis-based medicinal products are governed by the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971), the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), and additional guidelines issued by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE).
  • Scheduling System: Cannabis drugs for medical use are placed under Schedule 2 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations (2001), permitting their prescription by healthcare providers.
  • Prescription Regulations: Doctors prescribing cannabis-based medicinal products must follow stringent regulations and generally may only prescribe them when other treatment options have proven ineffective. Clinics like Leva and Sapphire are the few licenced to provide such prescriptions.

Medical Cannabis Market and Investments

  • Market Overview: The UK’s legal marijuana industry is rapidly evolving, with multiple players entering the field, as Commercial Dehydrators UK and IG Group noted. These include cultivators, distributors, and pharmaceutical companies.
  • Investment Trends: Companies in this sector are becoming increasingly lucrative investment opportunities as the UK expands its medicinal cannabis industry.

Illicit Cannabis Laws and Penalties

  • Prohibition and Criminalisation: The possession, distribution, or production of cannabis for recreational use remains illegal and is subject to penalties under the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971).
  • Penalties: Penalties for unlawful possession, distribution, or cultivation of cannabis can include imprisonment and substantial fines, depending on the classification of the drug and the nature of the offence.

The legal landscape concerning cannabis drugs in the UK is a sophisticated nexus of multiple laws, guidelines, and market forces. For healthcare providers, investors, and the public, understanding this complex framework is indispensable for the responsible utilisation and management of cannabis within the boundaries of British law.

Guidelines for Safe and Responsible Cannabis Use

The imperative of safety and responsible usage of cannabis cannot be overstated, whether one is using it for medicinal purposes or recreational enjoyment. This set of guidelines serves as a comprehensive blueprint for mitigating risks and engendering a culture of conscientious cannabis consumption.

Dosage and Frequency Guidelines

  • For Medical Use: Adherence to medically prescribed dosages is paramount. Deviating from the specified quantity or frequency can lead to detrimental health outcomes, ranging from mild side effects to severe complications like dependency. Consult with healthcare professionals for dosage adjustments.
  • For Recreational Use: The variety of cannabis strains, each with unique potencies and effects, calls for discernment. A lack of knowledge could lead to overconsumption and result in adverse health impacts such as paranoia or extreme lethargy.

Safe Use Practises

  • Avoid Co-Ingesting: Mixing cannabis with other substances like alcohol or pharmaceuticals can lead to unpredictable and often dangerous reactions. Synergistic effects could amplify each substance’s potency, heightening the risks.
  • Method of Ingestion: While smoking is a common method of consumption, it exposes the lungs to harmful products. Alternative methods like edibles or vaporisers present less respiratory risk but come with their caveats, like delayed onset for edibles.
  • Quality and Source: Knowing the provenance of your cannabis is crucial. Poorly sourced cannabis may contain harmful pesticides or other contaminants, thus increasing health risks.
  • Sanitised Equipment: The importance of using clean utensils, pipes or vaporisers is often overlooked. Non-sanitised equipment can serve as a breeding ground for bacteria and infections.

Resources for Help and Support

  • Treatment Centres: Institutions specialising in substance abuse offer multifaceted programmes that provide the tools needed for successful long-term abstinence.
  • Community Support Groups: Peer-led groups offer a non-judgemental platform for sharing experiences and strategies, thereby nurturing an environment conducive to recovery.
  • Online Forums: The digital sphere offers an array of platforms where users can anonymously seek advice, share experiences, and find support, be it for responsible usage or discontinuation.

Safer Consumption Tips

  • Start Small: Moderation is key when trying a new strain or source. Assess how your body reacts to a small dose before gradually increasing.
  • Hydration and Nutrition: Sufficient fluid intake and adequate nourishment can mitigate some of the negative effects of cannabis use, such as dry mouth or dizziness.
  • Rest and Recovery: Allowing ample time between sessions for the body to recover can circumvent the cumulative build-up of adverse effects, both psychological and physical.


Cannabis occupies a unique and often controversial position in the realm of medical therapeutics, recreational indulgence, and socio-legal landscapes. Its journey from an ancient medicinal plant to a subject of numerous debates and research stands as a testament to its complex relationship with society. As we unravel its multiple dimensions, the pivotal roles of regulation, responsible use, and ongoing research become evident.

From a regulatory standpoint, cannabis legislation remains a complex mosaic that varies by geography and jurisdiction. While some regions have welcomed cannabis legalisation as a leap toward individual freedoms and an avenue for significant tax revenue, others continue to cling to prohibitive policies. These differences emphasise the need for a standardised, evidence-based approach to cannabis laws, informed by comprehensive research and public health perspectives. The consensus seems to lean toward a balanced framework that accommodates medical applications while mitigating the risks of recreational misuse.

Speaking of medical applications, cannabis has shown promise in a variety of therapeutic contexts, from pain management to the treatment of certain psychological disorders. However, its classification as a Schedule I drug in some jurisdictions has historically stymied research, creating a catch-22 where the very laws that demand evidence of its medical efficacy also hinder the studies required to provide such proof. Nevertheless, advancements in cannabis research have offered valuable insights into the endocannabinoid system, broadening our understanding of not only cannabis but also of neurobiology and immunology.

While the discourse around cannabis often tilts towards its positive attributes, particularly in areas that have decriminalised or legalised it, it would be disingenuous to overlook its risks. These risks range from immediate consequences like impaired cognitive function and psychomotor skills to long-term ramifications, including dependency and respiratory issues. Education and awareness campaigns are essential components in managing these risks. Harm reduction strategies, like dosage guidelines and safe use practises, provide pragmatic approaches to mitigate potential harm, acting as compasses in the labyrinthine world of cannabis use.

Furthermore, the economic implications of cannabis cannot be overstated. The burgeoning cannabis industry has created job opportunities and boosted local economies in regions where it’s legal. However, the industry must tread carefully to avoid the commercialisation that prioritises profit over public health, thereby mirroring the trajectory of the tobacco and alcohol industries.

In closing, cannabis is not a monolithic entity but rather a multifaceted phenomenon laden with opportunities and challenges alike. It beckons for a nuanced engagement from all stakeholders—government agencies, healthcare providers, researchers, and the public—to delineate a roadmap that maximises its benefits while minimising its pitfalls. As we venture further into this uncharted territory, the ability to adapt, based on empirical evidence and ethical considerations, will undoubtedly shape the future of cannabis within our global society.


National Health Service (England) – Cannabis-Based Products for Medicinal Use:

Sapphire Clinics:

The Guardian – Cannabis Brain Effects Study:

Releaf UK:

National Health Service – Medical Cannabis:

Healthline – What is Cannabis:

National Institute on Drug Abuse – Drug Facts on Cannabis:

Medical News Today – Cannabis:

World Health Organisation – Mental Health and Substance Use on Cannabis:

Alcohol and Drug Foundation – Drug Facts on Cannabis:

WebMD – Cannabis as a Vitamin Ingredient:

U.S. Food and Drug Administration – Cannabis Regulation:

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health – Cannabis:

Science Direct – Topics on Cannabis:

Commercial Dehydrators UK – An Overview of the United Kingdom’s Legal Marijuana Industry:

Leva Clinic – Medical Cannabis in the UK FAQs:

IG Group – UK Cannabis Shares, Companies, and Regulation:

The Lambert Initiative at the University of Sydney – History of Medicinal Cannabis:


CBD (Cannabidiol) and THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) are both cannabinoids found in cannabis but serve different purposes. While THC is psychoactive and responsible for the “high,” CBD is non-psychoactive and often lauded for its therapeutic benefits.

The legality of cannabis varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. You must know your local, state, or national laws governing its use, possession, and distribution.

Dosages can vary based on the individual, the type of cannabis product, and the intended use (medical or recreational). Consultation with healthcare professionals is advised for medical usage.

Yes, while less common than addiction to substances like alcohol or opioids, cannabis dependency is a documented phenomenon that can lead to withdrawal symptoms and impact daily life.

Risks can range from immediate effects like dizziness or impaired judgement to long-term consequences such as respiratory issues and potential dependency.

The duration varies based on factors like frequency of use, metabolism, and the type of test being administered. It could be detectable in urine for up to 30 days.

It’s highly discouraged to mix cannabis with alcohol, pharmaceuticals, or other illicit substances due to potentially dangerous interactions and amplified effects.

Legal age restrictions exist in areas where cannabis is legal, usually requiring individuals to be at least 18 or 21 years old. For minors, medical cannabis is sometimes allowed with parental consent and medical supervision.

The endocannabinoid system is a biological system in humans and other animals that interacts with cannabinoids. It plays a role in regulating functions such as mood, sleep, and appetite.